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Achilles' tendonitis:

is a condition of irritation and inflammation of the large tendon in the back of the ankle. Achilles tendonitis is a common injury that tends to occur in recreational athletes. Overuse of the Achilles tendon can cause inflammation that can lead to pain and swelling. Achilles tendonitis is differentiated from another common Achilles tendon condition called Achilles tendinosis. Patients with Achilles tendinosis have chronic Achilles swelling and pain as a result of degenerative, microscopic tears within the tendon.

Bunion surgery:

generally involves an incision in the top or side of the big toe joint and the removal or realignment of soft tissue and bone. This is done to relieve pain and restore normal alignment to the joint. If the joint is severely deformed, it may be stabilized with tiny wires, stitches, screws, or plates. There are no guarantees that a bunion surgery will fully relieve your pain.

Bunion deformity:

is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe (hallux) may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender.

Corns and callouses:

Corns and calluses are thickened layers of skin caused by repeated pressure or friction. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side of a toe, usually from shoes that do not fit properly. A callus is thickened skin on your hands or the soles of your feet.

Diabetic foot care:

There are many things you can do to keep your feet healthy.
  • Take care of your diabetes. Work with your health care team to keep your blood glucose in your target range.
  • Check your feet every day. Look at your bare feet for red spots, cuts, swelling, and blisters. If you cannot see the bottoms of your feet, use a mirror or ask someone for help.
  • Be more active. Plan your physical activity program with your health team.
  • Ask your doctor about Medicare coverage for special shoes.
  • Wash your feet every day. Dry them carefully, especially between the toes.
  • Keep your skin soft and smooth. Rub a thin coat of skin lotion over the tops and bottoms of your feet, but not between your toes. Read more about skin care.
  • If you can see and reach your toenails, trim them when needed. Trim your toenails straight across and file the edges with an emery board or nail file.
  • Wear shoes and socks at all times. Never walk barefoot. Wear comfortable shoes that fit well and protect your feet. Check inside your shoes before wearing them. Make sure the lining is smooth and there are no objects inside.
  • Protect your feet from hot and cold. Wear shoes at the beach or on hot pavement. Don't put your feet into hot water. Test water before putting your feet in it just as you would before bathing a baby. Never use hot water bottles, heating pads, or electric blankets. You can burn your feet without realizing it.
  • Keep the blood flowing to your feet. Put your feet up when sitting. Wiggle your toes and move your ankles up and down for 5 minutes, two (2) or three (3) times a day. Don't cross your legs for long periods of time. Don't smoke.
  • Get started now. Begin taking good care of your feet today.  Set a time every day to check your feet.

Foot orthotics:

are custom made shoe inserts that are medically proven to eliminate pain and discomfort. Orthotics are designed to control foot function by treating imbalances and modifying areas of weight-bearing on the foot. Many foot problems can be effectively treated with orthotics.

Hammertoe deformity:

or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint.  Claw toe is another similar condition, with dorsiflexion of the proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal joint, combined with flexion of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Claw toe can affect the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes.

Heel spur syndrome:

Heel spur syndrome is a misnomer for a pain syndrome on the bottom of the heel. It is more accurate to call this problem plantar fascitis. Plantar Fascitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain in Los Angeles and globally. The Foot and Ankle Institute is a world leader in the research and treatment of plantar fascitis with complete diagnostic services, non surgical and state of the art surgical options for plantar fascitis treatment.

Haglund's Deformity:

is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes.  This often leads to painful bursitis, which is an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid-filled sac between the tendon and bone).

Ingrown toenail:

is a common form of nail disease. It is an often painful condition in which the nail grows so that it cuts into one or both sides of the paronychium or nail bed. The common opinion is that nail enters inside paronychium but an ingrown toenail may be overgrown toe skin.  The disease starts from a microbial inflammation of the paronychium, secondary we have a granuloma, and the result is a nail buried inside the granuloma.  While ingrown nails can occur in both the nails of the hand and feet, they occur most commonly with the toenails. A true ingrowing toenail, or onychocryptosis, is caused by the actual penetration of the flesh by a sliver of nail.

Morton's neuroma:

Morton's neuroma is a thickening of nerve tissue between the toes. It commonly affects the nerve that travels between the third and fourth toes.

Running injuries:


Tarsal tunnel syndrome:

also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is compression neuropathy and a painful foot condition in which the tibial nerve is impinged and compressed as it travels through the tarsal tunnel. TTS is a compression syndrome of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.  This tunnel is found along the inner leg behind the medial malleolus (bump on the inside of the ankle). The posterior tibial artery, tibial nerve, and tendons of the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus muscles travel in a bundle along this pathway, through the tarsal tunnel. In the tunnel, the nerve splits into three different paths. One nerve (calcaneal) continues to the heel, the other two (medial and lateral plantar nerves) continue on to the bottom of the foot. The tarsal tunnel is made up of bone on the inside and the flexor retinaculum on the outside.
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